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The Bloom Taxonomy
Bloom's taxonomy was developed and created in the 1950s by Benjamin Bloom. This taxonomy recognized levels of reasoning in a classroom situation. As a result, it had six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, evaluation, and finally, synthesis. These levels required a higher abstraction from the students. Therefore, the teacher should attempt and move students up the taxonomy level as they progress in their knowledge. However, at every state tests are administered to the learners to assess their knowledge. This is done mainly to develop learners who prefer thinking rather than recalling information. In this paper, I will point out the several levels which discuss the various stages of Bloom's taxonomy.
I will start with the level of knowledge. In this level, Bloom points out that questions are asked solely to test whether a student has primarily gained detailed information. For instance, this may include memorization of a specific date. This includes knowing various presidents of different states that served during some time in history. It also includes knowledge of main ideas. The questions can be in a form of frames, using ordinary words such as list, label, and name.
The second stage is comprehension level, in which learners are expected to go beyond recalling facts. They should develop an inner understanding of information. This means that they can interpret the facts or the information taught. For instance, in a geography classroom, a learner should be able to understand the formation of each cloud. This question can be framed with phrases such as describe, contract to predict, and discuss.
The third level is the application stage. In this stage, the learners are expected to apply, use the knowledge that they have been taught to attend to certain issues to create a visible solution to problems. For instance, a student or a learner may be asked to solve a given question in a government-related context using constructions and amendments. This implies that the learner is to write a comprehension, addressing the question, using such words as solve, complete, examine, illustrate and show. This stage is then followed by the analysis stage.
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In the analysis stage, the students or the learners are expected to go beyond knowledge, comprehension, and application respectively. They tend to develop a pattern that they can use to analyze and solve a problem. For example, in an English classroom, a teacher may ask the motives of the protagonists in a given novel. This implies that the learners will analyze the character of each participant in the novel and then draw a conclusion, based on the analysis obtained. This stage may use phrases such as analyze, investigate, explain and infer among others. This is then followed by the synthesis level.
At the synthesis level; the learners are expected to use known facts to reach or create new theories or even make predictions. These may involve the use of knowledge from many fields to reach a given concept before concluding. Commonly used phrases among others include imagine, compose, and create.
Finally goes the level of evaluation, which is the top level of the Bloom taxonomy. In this stage, the students are supposed to address and assess information and use values to conclude. For instance, students are completing a document based on a question from the history of the US. They are expected to evaluate beyond primary and secondary sources to see the outcomes. This can be summarized in a table as follows.
However, in this taxonomy, educators help a student to develop his/her thinking skills. This implies that learners are made to apply, analyze and evaluate situations in their context. This also means that educators are supposed to help learners grow and prosper in school and beyond.
Before one develops a teaching plan it is necessary to develop some objectives, which at the end of the lesson are compared to the required objectives. Therefore, one has to set an objective for the targeted population. One may decide to use A B C D in writing the objectives.
A- An Audience (this includes students, who are supposed to be taught)
B- Behavior (how the learners are expected to behave)
C- Condition (indispensable condition under which the performance occurs)
D- Degree (the criteria to establish acceptable performance).
When developing a lesson plan, one needs to know the time that is allocated for the study. The time is then divided into small segments to determine how the lesson will be conducted. This will give the teacher guidelines on how he or she will conduct the lesson to use the required resources.
Here is an example of the lesson plan to teach the Bloom taxonomy:
Names of the teachers:
Class or the audience:
1. By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to know Bloom's taxonomy.
2. By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to discriminate the various levels of Bloom's taxonomy.
3. By the end of the lesson, the students should comprehend the various levels of Bloom's taxonomy.
Time in minute(s)
Activities (performed by the learners)
Introduction (20 )
Learners should be asked questions to determine entry behavior.
Learners should take draft notes
Diagrams showing Bloom's taxonomy.
The learners should take detailed notes on Bloom's taxonomy.
The learner should ask questions on the areas of difficulties that should be answered by the teacher.
Learners should take assignments from the teachers
Textbooks and journals.
Chalkboard or a whiteboard
Learners to answer questions provided by the teacher.
Tables of summary
Last but not least, the time allocated may be different, but this will provide a clear impression of a lesson plan. In the last stage (introduction), the teacher will give a brief story of Bloom's taxonomy and its origin. This means that a history of the personnel will be given and how the levels were developed. Also, to emphasize understanding, a diagram showing the various levels of Bloom's taxonomy will be presented. This stage is to be flowed by the body of the lesson and will provide detailed information on Bloom's taxonomy. Students are also expected to ask questions in areas of difficulty. The last stage is the stage of conclusion, which will involve summaries of concepts accompanied with assignments to emphasize understanding of the learners. The assignments should be followed in the next lesson.
In conclusion, the lesson plan is a document showing or guiding the teacher on how he or she will conduct the class. This is done by having some basic knowledge of Bloom's taxonomy and will enable teachers to know the appropriate question to ask a learner, depending on his class and understanding. Also, Bloom's taxonomy helps learners to develop a deeper meaning than recalling information taught. This implies that learners are meant to learn by empirical approaches and think beyond the normal information provided in the classroom. Therefore, Bloom's taxonomy helps learners or students to be critical thinkers on issues to determine solutions.