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In achieving the desired results in most processes, various modalities are always put in place to ensure the effectiveness of the whole procedure. Modalities are the peculiar crucial channels or pathways that can be employed to realize a common objective. In developing action research, various modalities are considered to achieve the change that is desired in the organization.

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Firstly, action research demands a collaborative involvement of both clients and researchers in the process of problem-solving in the organization, besides generating new knowledge. Reason and Bradbury provide a further illustration to action research as a family of practices of living inquiry and that the process is not so much a methodology as an orientation to inquiry. They opine that the inquiry process is done conclusively through the involvement of every individual in the organization. Kurt Lewin also advocates the involvement of employees in the organization to achieve full implementation of change in organizations as this will bar any resistance to change that can result. Bushe & Kassam (2005, p. 169) affirm that collaborative involvement also allows for the progressive adoption of knowledge that will foster problem-solving in the organization in subsequent instances. This involvement in some instances has proved to be hypothetical mostly in technical decision making. These refer to crucial and pertinent issues that involve the top management of the firm that ethically bars subordinates from participating in the change process. Similarly, the process of inclusive involvement seems ironic in large organizations that due to their complexity it becomes difficult to ensure that every individual's view is included in the change process. Various challenges have been experienced in the realization of collaborative involvement. Initially, time constraints have been experienced as much time is spent in bringing every individual on board in ensuring this. In addition, effective problem solving has not been achieved due to divergent views from various persons.

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Action research similarly encompasses the use and realization of practical knowledge. Therefore, in achieving solutions to problems, practical skills and experience are involved. Accordingly, it aims at practical skills that are acquired for subsequent problem-solving in the organization. It is significant to note that practical knowledge entails the application of common sense knowledge and application of the day-to-day skills. Advocating for the application of common sense has been viewed to be hypothetical since it will result in divergent views in problem-solving as persons always possess differing opinions on various situations. This has resulted in devastating consequences as conflicting ideas and goals have always been experienced. Conflicts, in the decision-making procedure, have led to ineffectiveness in the operations of the firms owing to the unsolved problems. Additionally, the application of the skills previously applied may prove ineffective due to the unique nature of the problems that may be experienced. This previous experience may not apply to the new problem faced that can lead to ineffective in arriving at the solutions to the problem. The results of this may be devastating to the organization as the goals that were desired may not be arrived at. On the contrary, instead of the application of common sense and the day-to-day skills attained, a logical procedure and methodologies should be stimulated to act as a guideline in achieving action research. This will be a reference for analyzing the viability of the mechanisms undertaken in realizing the change. Besides, Raelin (2009, p. 20) opines that the definite logical procedures will allow for consistency in mechanisms adopted for solving problems in the organization and allow for constant reference with other organizations to test for effectiveness. Action research can also be achieved through learning history. This is where an individual becomes well conversant with how the past organization problems have been solved in the past and any consequences that arose due to the cause of action that was adopted.

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Lastly, clinical research is another important modality in action research. According to the arguments of Schein, it involves the use of qualified personnel in the resolution of organizational problems and effecting desirable changes. These trained consultants will critically identify the sectors that need changes in the organization besides developing the appropriate procedures to follow in the realization of the changes. Schein emphasizes clinical research as the main obligation that qualified consultants should undertake in the search for solutions to organizational problems. Mr. Lewins illustrates how clinical researchers can participate in effecting changes successfully within the organization. He first opines that consultants should initially analyze the problems facing the organization then identify the best course of action that should be adopted. Secondly, he explicates that they should undertake the freezing of the change to be adopted. This is where the consultants will familiarize persons with the nature of the proposed course of action. Friedman et al. (2004, p. 173) assert that in this step, the consultants will also examine the forces that are against the proposed change and those that are for the change. Secondly, the trained personnel will introduce the change in the organization. This will finally be followed by the critical analysis of how the change will be perceived in the organization. In cases where individuals will be adamant to adopt the changes, the consultant will initiate actions that ensure that the change is adopted. Favorable actions will also be adopted to encourage individuals that would have adopted the change to encourage others to also accept the change. This method is hypothetical since it assumes that the consultants are qualified and can initiate effective changes in the organization. In instances when the clinical researchers are not qualified in initiating changes and solving problems, the organization will likely experience major challenges.

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