Confucianism is a dominant theme in the religions of the Middle East. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism portray the antithesis of self but yet display it differently. The Indian ascetics viewed humanity as a shell to be shattered and dismissed while elevating the superhuman and super divine yogi. The self is indicated with the failure of understanding of what humans can accomplish in the universe and their limitations. On the other hand, the foundations of Buddhism centrally focus on the importance of self. The theme is further extrapolated with the extremist of anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism.
From the Hindu spirituality and mystical Bhagavad Gita quotations an emphatic analysis of the self is shown through the disdain for material things. Unlike the Chinese, the Indians discovery of the self causes them to turn inward to reconcile their anxieties that arose from the discovery of the self-world split. The Chinese respond to the discovery of the self by externalizing in a positive way their new desires. These two views can be contradicted by the kojiki of the Japanese that establishes the identity of the royal family and thus justify its position in the society as the rulers. The Nihon shoki elaborates the relations between Japan and other countries like China. Many folk tales, traditions and customs support the self consistency of the Japanese.
Radical humanism further indicates the theme of self as it is noted in the religions of Asia. The use of titans presents a popular superman. Understanding the meaning of the earth is critical to self in order to hinder wavered belief of those presenting different doctrines and hope for another world. Confucius teaches on the need of love, faithful stewardship and the need to coexist in harmony. Self is instilled as a virtue among individuals in Asia through religion.