The difficult economic situation and rise in the number of women who face the unplanned pregnancy led to the widespread practices of abortion all over the world. Women who prefer to have abortion rather than to give birth to the human being have their own reasons to do so. It is possible to understand their desire to make the abortion due to the different life situation. However, there are two different positions about this issue. Some people consider that abortion should be legal, and it has to be the decision of the pregnant woman what to do with the unborn child. The other group of people puts forward their arguments against abortion, stating that an unborn child that is growing inside each pregnant woman is a live personality who has a right for life regardless of any factors. Despite the fact that many people have arguments that promote the abortion among pregnant women, it is the process that should be equated with a killing of the adult person.
Nowadays, many pregnant women face the choice between having an abortion and keeping the baby. Very often, their decision is based on the arguments of other people. Don Marquis, who is the author of the article “Why abortion is immoral”, provides pregnant women with the arguments that encourage them to save the life inside them. In the article, the main point of the author that argues against abortion is that life begins from the moment of conception when the fetus receives the complete genetic code from parents. Based on the standard moral principles, the abortion is considered as a killing of a living person. It is the wrong choice to end the life of a baby. “It is only seriously prima facie wrong to take the life of a member of the human community” (Marquis). The author underlines in the article that there is no clear opinion about the position of fetuses in the human society. Many experts claim that fetus may not be considered as a person. As a result, it is difficult to apply the moral principles to the abortion. However, Don Marquis states that all arguments of the opponents are not straightforward and are generally formed. They do not touch the essence of the matter. From the conclusion of abortion supporters, it is not clear why killing adult human beings is wrong. Thus, it is definitely difficult to talk about moral principles in the case of abortion. In order to clarify the discussion of this issue, the author explains that killing of an adult takes away his or her future. Consequently, abortion takes away the future life earlier. The reason why killing adults is wrong can also be applied to fetuses. As a result, it makes the abortion morally wrong.
Margaret Olivia Little presents the other point of view related to abortion in her article “The moral permissibility of abortion”. The author explains how she thinks people should treat early human life. She considers the first stage of pregnancy as a permissible time to make abortion. The main argument of this article is that a life inside pregnant women at an early stage should not be equaled to usual person’s life. “The idea of a 2-week blastocyst, or 6-week embryo, or 12-week fetus counting as an equivalent rights-bearer to more usual person is juts an enormous stretch” (Little). The author of the article also wants to draw the reader’s attention to the definition of embryo. By definition, it is the kind of organism rather than a living person with rights to be defended. The other argument is that the pregnancy, as a process, is a project of nature, but the woman provide her own sources like blood, energy, hormones and so on. Therefore, woman provides fetus with all necessary sources and assistance. That is why, it should be her decision to make abortion or not. The author wants to emphasize that abortion at the early stages is not the end of human life, but rather the end of gestational support. The final argument of this article is that the physical, medical and social risks during pregnancy should be appreciated. Many women are at risk to die during pregnancy. The other decent part of women is at social risks to be economically defenseless and face domestic violence. Some women are not able to allow another living creature to live inside them. Eventually, they do not want to get a status of mother.
Based on information from two articles, it should be concluded that both authors have the right to consider their arguments vivid as they present their significant explanation to support them. However, it is not possible to agree with both of them. It is difficult to agree with the statements that abortion is morally permissible based on the fetus definition and on the fact that woman is a set of sources for fetus. It is not completely known when life begins. Scientists are not able to completely discover all laws and principles that were created by nature. It is also difficult to understand why both authors only observe a human being as a physical object without the assumption that a person may have a soul and each woman has an organism that designed to give birth to others. It is possible that each woman has an obligation to give birth to any child because it is her destiny on this planet. Ending gestation could mean that a woman will never be able to give birth due to the wrong assistance during the abortion. All reasons why women want to end their pregnancy could be understood. However, it does not mean that people should discuss the possible status of a fetus or embryo on the early stages of pregnancy. In some way, it is proper to think that woman has the right to end pregnancy. However, it would be more correct to think that previously, her fate was decided by her mother and perhaps her decision was made even under more difficult pregnancy circumstances.