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Sexually transmitted diseases present a problem for the whole world population. People, especially women, do not pay proper attention to their first symptoms. As a result, some diseases may be transmitted from mother to child. This paper will analyze the most widespread diseases and educate people about their dangerous nature and possible ways to prevent their contraction. When one knows the signs and symptoms, treatments, and methods of prevention of these diseases, it will be much easier to solve the problem. Having read this paper, one will get a clear picture in terms of what he\she should do to avoid these diseases.
The Problem of Genital Diseases
The problem of genital diseases has become paramount today since more and more people catch them. This paper analyzes the following diseases: gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts, herpes, candidiasis, and cystitis.
The causative agent of this disease is the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacteria. The bacterium is characterized by sexual transmission. The incubation period is 2-10 days (Kayser et al., 2005). Signs and symptoms depend on the sex of the infected person. Women may have the irritation of the cervix and vagina, bleeding after the menstrual period, and they may feel the urge to urinate often. Men may experience pain during urination, thick and yellow penile excretion, and inflammation in the testicles and the prostate gland. Babies usually have irritation of the mucous membranes in the eyes. Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics that are called fluoroquinolones, for instance, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin (Tortora et al., 2012). The prevention measures include proper contraception.
Its causative agent is the Treponema pallidum. It is a sexually transmitted disease, which has three stages. During the first stage, the chance takes place. As a rule, it develops in the genital area. One should say that chancre is painless. The second stage is characterized by the spread of bacteria throughout the whole organism. Symptoms of this disease include sore throat, fever, weight loss, swollen glands, headache, and a rash around the rectum. The third stage of the disease is characterized by the following symptoms: dementia, paralysis, blindness, and aortic aneurysm (Kayser et al., 2005). Syphilis is treated with the class of antibiotics called Penicillin. The prevention actions include different methods of contraception.
The causative agent of the illness is the human papillomavirus. Patients may suffer from painless bumps, itching, bleeding, and urinary obstruction. Warts can be noticed as soft masses with a smooth surface or under hair in the genital area. There is no fully effective method of the treatment of genital warts. However, cryotherapy, laser treatment, and electrodesiccation are now widely used. The prevention measures are contraception and an HPV vaccine.
It is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Its symptoms depend on the type of pathogen. Symptoms of oral herpes are fever, small blisters on skin areas, sore throat, and swollen neck lymph nodes. Symptoms of genital herpes include the general feeling of malaise, fever, pain in the genital area, chills, and vaginal discharge. The treatment of this disease is symptomatic. It can be prevented with the help of contraception.
Its causative agent can be any type of Candida. As a rule, it is caused by the overuse of antibiotics. It is seen on the skin as a red patch, often with leaking fluid, and pustules on the edge of the rush. It can be located in the groin, folds of the buttocks, toes, and fingers. Patients complain of the pain during intercourse, cheese-like discharge, and discomfort in the genital area. The treatment of candidiasis includes the use of antimycotics (Tortora et al., 2012). Prevention actions are the good hygiene and medications prescribed by the doctor.
It is often caused by Escherichia coli. Symptoms of the illness include frequent and painful urination accompanied by spasms, painful orgasm, and urinary incontinence. The pain can locate in the lower abdomen, lower back, urethra, and genital area. Its treatment is symptomatic, and prevention includes good hygiene.
All the diseases mentioned above present a risk of the mother-to-child transmission. Therefore, one should understand in which period of pregnancy they can appear. Thus, syphilis and gonorrhea can lead to congenital infections. While herpes and cystitis cause neonatal infections. The transmission of these diseases can be prevented if a mother takes medications during pregnancy, or a baby is medicated during the first six months of life.
Sexually transmitted diseases are widely spread. Some of them may lead to death. The best way to prevent their contraction is proper contraception and good hygiene.