U.S. Boundary and Economic Expansion Chronology
- The 1800s The U.S. textile industry started to prosper and bring benefits to the economic system before the war of 1812.
Hostilities of 1812 helped the economy to grow faster than before, expand, promote transportation and agriculture, and establish the factory system.
- The 1800s After the end of the military conflict, the necessity for the transportation of goods increased the demand for building better roads and canals.
The trade took place smoothly, and costs of goods decreased because of the revolutionary achievements in transportation; a great demand for manufactured products led to the establishment of factories.
For years, the USA felt isolated due to the limited communication; also, poor communication hampered the country's development.
The emergence of the telegraph accelerated the progress and brought revolutionary changes to the communication between different countries.
- the 1800s The principles of the free market largely dominated the governments of the liberal democratic states.
Countries constantly applied these principles during the industrial revolution; over time, free markets gave rise to significant positive changes.
- The 1800s In this period, slavery prospered in the USA, and the main reason for this phenomenon was the rapid development of a cotton gin.
As the cultivation of cotton was time and labor consuming, manufacturers needed more workforce for processing fields; therefore, the labor of African Americans became crucial.
- The 1800s The pro-slavery Southern states were agricultural; they significantly relied on slaves while the slavery opponents, the Northerners, were industrial and, thus, did not need slaves at all.
These differences produced caused tension for both parts of the country and, eventually, led to a civil-military conflict.
- 1801-1850 The USA always wanted to develop as a strong and autonomous state, as well as gain economic independence from the European countries, particularly Great Britain.
The plan offered by the ardent promoter of a strong American system, Henry Clay, led to the development of new industries and factories and helped to eliminate the country's dependence on foreign commodities.
- 1801-1900 The Oregon Question emerged due to the disputes between the Imperialist countries, namely Britain and the USA, over the division of the U.S. Pacific Northwest since the competition for this region reflected the aims of the main rivals for the further conquest.
The dispute played an important role in the international diplomacy between the two superpowers; the elections of 1844 resolved it through the annexation of the territory by the USA; the solution was highly promoted by the Democrats.
- 1816 The Dartmouth College v. Woodward case was a result of the desire to transform the Dartmouth College funded by the private entities into the university that would be under the control of the state.
Trustee appointments and constant control over the college were assigned to the governor; the decision stimulated investment in the business structures, promote growth, employed workers, and significantly contributed to the nation's prosperity and success.
- 1819 Constant tension between the USA and Spain over the territories led to the signing of the Adams-Onis Treaty aimed at resolving the border controversies once and forever.
As a result, the lands were ceded to the USA, and Spaniards no longer laid claims to East Florida; the American control over West Florida was restored.
- 1819 Panic of 1819 emerged due to the credit overexpansion, export market crash, and low prices of imported goods; all these events characterized the state of the U.S. economy of that time.
The worldwide financial crisis suspended the U.S. expansion after the war and marked the new policy course that boosted the country's development.
- 1820-the 1830s The American system of manufacturing sought to divide the process of production so that some stages could be performed by the unskilled and unqualified workforce.
The development of this initiative made interchangeable work possible, and the U.S. system became more effective; the country started to produce goods faster at a relatively low price in comparison with the previous years.
- 1830 The main purpose of the Indian Removal Act signed in 1830 was to authorize the President to exchange uninhabited territories west of the Mississippi for the Indian territory within the existing borders.
Only some tribes reacted peacefully to the policy of resistance; however, Americans' aspirations to own a large territory caused numerous violent conflicts, and the subsequent agreements forced the tribes to cede their areas to the U.S. authorities.
- 1835-1836 The main cause of the Texas Revolution was the refusal of the Mexican and British residents of Texas to accept changes promoted by the constitutional instruments, which provided the Mexican authorities with significant power.
The outcome of these actions was that Texas finally became independent.
- 1837 The Panic of 1837 was a severe financial crisis in the USA that provoked the main decline lasting until the mid-1840s.
Pessimism prevailed at that time, as income, prices, and wages declined and unemployment grew.
- The 1840s The population growth, the domestic industrialization, the significant differences in wages between the USA and migrants homelands, good living conditions, and great economic opportunities caused massive immigration before the Civil War.
The newcomers transformed the cultural and social life of the USA. By demonstrating unity and diversity, they promoted national strength; unfortunately, discrimination and stereotypes still existed.
- 1842 The main aim of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty was to resolve the border controversies between the British and American colonies once and forever.
Signed during the tenure of President Tyler, the agreement marked the end of the Aroostook War, the confrontation over the boundary between the British New Brunswick and the U.S. Maine.
- 1844 Election of the proficient speaker Polk surprised the nation since, being a dark horse candidate, he was not supposed to overcome his main rival, Clay; however, his active campaign helped him to win.
After the victory, the national leader continued to promote the westward expansion as a highly debated issue of that time; Polk oversaw the restoration of an independent treasury system, the acquisition of the Mexican territory, and the joining of Texas.
- 1845 Manifest Destiny was a result of the fact that Americans were linked to the English civilization from a historical perspective.
Beliefs and attitudes reflected the English superiority over other residents, who inhabited North America; in addition to conquest of the Indian lands, the settlers also promoted the western settlement and sought to remove Native Americans thus causing hostilities.
- 1846 The Texas annexation and America's ambitions disrupted peaceful relations between the USA and Mexico and marked the beginning of the war.
The military conflict caused internal controversies over slavery, brought territorial benefits for the USA and marked the fall of the Mexican government.
- The 1850s In this period, the American economy demonstrated impressive growth in the industrial sphere, and the expansion of production created a great demand for a large number of skillful workers who would ensure an uninterrupted process of manufacturing.
Despite the unstable economic situation and poor working conditions, people had to work long, grueling hours at the factories; most of them experienced wage cuts and lost jobs during the downturns.
- 1880 Poor migrants lived in the hastily built substandard housing; reformers considered these large overcrowded areas with poor sanitation a danger to the morals and health.
Low-income families and individuals with various backgrounds demanded the division of overcrowded dwellings and the construction of new low-cost houses, the tenements.