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Consequences of the Vienna Treaty of 1815
History knows many contracts that radically changed the course of events. The Vienna Treaty is one of them since it refers to the documents that define the new order in society and greatly affect the life and development of many countries. This paper describes the main objectives and the consequences of the Vienna Treaty of 1815.
The Congress of Vienna in 1814-1815 years was a pan-European conference, during which the system was concluding agreements aimed at restoring the feudal absolutist monarchies that were destroyed by the French Revolution in 1789 and the Napoleonic wars. There were defined new borders of Europe. Representatives of all European countries except the Ottoman Empire attended the Congress chaired by Austrian diplomat Count Metternich. The talks were held in a secret and overt rivalry, intrigue collusion.
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Decisions of the Congress of Vienna were collected in the Final Act. Congress authorized the inclusion of the territory of the Austrian Netherlands (today’s Belgium) in the new kingdom of the Netherlands, but all the other possessions of Austria came back under the control of the Habsburgs. Prussia got a part of Saxony, a large area of Westphalia and Rhineland. Denmark was deprived of Norway, which was given to Sweden. Italy restored the authority of the Pope over the Vatican and the Papal States, and the Bourbons returned to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. There was also formed German Confederation.
A part of the Duchy of Warsaw was included in the territory of the Russian Empire under the name of the Kingdom of Poland, and the Russian Emperor Alexander I became the Polish king. Austria received the southern part of Little Poland and part of the Red Rus. Western land Wielkopolska with Poznan and Polish Pomerania returned to Prussia. There was international recognition of the neutrality of Switzerland. The proclamation of the policy of neutrality had a decisive impact on the subsequent development of Switzerland. Because of neutrality, it managed to not only protect its territory from the devastating wars of the 19th and 20th centuries but also stimulate the economy, maintaining mutually beneficial cooperation with the warring parties.
A congress identified a new balance of power in Europe, the current at the end of the Napoleonic wars, for a long time, marking the leading role of the victorious powers - Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain - in international relations. As a result of the Vienna Congress, a system of international relations developed, and The Holy Alliance of European states was created, which had the aim of ensuring the inviolability of European monarchies.
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A Vienna system of international relations, or the Concert of Europe, was a system of international relations that developed after the Napoleonic Wars. It was regulatory secured by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Under this system, multilateral diplomacy was shaped, and the concept of the great powers was first formulated (Jarrett, 2013). Many researchers have called the Vienna system of international relations the first example of collective security that was true for 35 years, before the start of the Crimean War. There were also systematized and unified diplomatic ranks, such as the ambassador, envoy, and charge affairs, and four types of consular offices. Such concepts as diplomatic immunity and the diplomatic bag were defined.
The Congress of Vienna played a key role in the formation of a resistant paradigm of relations between the major European states. A Concert of Europe was based on the general agreement of large countries: Russia, Austria, Prussia, France, and Great Britain. Any worsening of relations between the countries could lead to the destruction of the international system.
One of the foundations of the Concert of Europe was the principle of maintaining a balance of power. Responsibility for this was taken by big countries. This responsibility has been implemented by holding a large number of international conferences to resolve the problems. Among these conferences were the Paris Congress of 1856, the London Conference of 1871, and the Berlin Conference of 1878.
During the existence of the Concert of Europe, unified regulations on the peaceful resolution of conflicts, as well as the conduct of hostilities, the treatment of prisoners, and other important issues, were formulated and accepted by all civilized nations, The processes of modernization, the development of capitalist relations, and the bourgeois revolution took place during that time. It is interesting that at the Congress of Vienna, colonies were not formalized. One of the main causes of the First World War was a struggle for the redistribution of colonial empires.
The Holy Alliance was the Conservative Union of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, created to maintain international order established by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The application of mutual assistance by all Christian princes was signed on September 14, 1815, and then, all the monarchs of continental Europe gradually joined the treaty, except the king of England, the Pope, and the Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Although not formally, the Holy Alliance was viewed in the history of European diplomacy as a close-knit organization with sharply defined clerical-monarchist ideology, created based on suppression of revolutionary sentiment, no matter where they were shown.
Marking the character of the epoch, the Holy Alliance was the main body of a Europe-wide reaction against the liberal aspirations. The practical significance of its actions resulted in several congresses, which developed a principle of interference in the internal affairs of other countries and led to the violent repression of all revolutionary movements and the maintenance of the existing system with its absolutist and clerical-aristocratic tendencies.
The Treaty of Vienna played an enormous role in the history of the European countries. It was the beginning of the development of modern international relations with an entirely new Europe being created.