Nov 26, 2020 in History

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HISTORY CLASS 2

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Taxation and The Cost of War

1. The Intolerable Acts

The Acts were passed in 1774 by the British Parliament with the objective of assisting the British East India Company in its administrative roles. Before the passage of these rules, the company was compelled to sell its tea through London, where it was subjected to duties and tax. Therefore, this Acts allowed the company to sell its tea directly to colonies with no additional costs, which led to reduction of tea process in America. The Coercive Acts comprised of five laws that were passed to punish the Americans in this order: The Boston Port Act (passed in March 30, 1774), Massachusetts Government Act and Administrative of Justice Act (enacted on 20th May, 1774), the Quartering Act (1765) and lastly, the Quebec Act. The increase in tax revenue was due to high levels of debts the British had incurred during the war, and they believed that it was a legitimate means of having all colonies pay their fair share of debts.

2. Colonists Reaction to Taxation

Nevertheless, many colonists developed a different concept about the British Empire. They used the British Constitution to defend their position over the right to own property. The constitution allowed that the property of a British subject could not be taken away through taxation or any other form of government representation. However, these colonies were not directly represented in parliament, and thus, the parliament had no right to stop the government from levying. The radical stand of the government led to activist slogan no taxation with no representation, which eventually led to the Townsend Act of 1767.

3. French and Indian War

The French and Indian war had led to a 7 year old struggle in the wider European power that involved Britain, Austria, France and Prussia. Thus, the American conflicts were influenced by the events that took place in Europe. However, the French and Indian wars were not just a small part of the long struggle because the Americans played a critical role in determining the course of the war. Therefore, the French and Indian wars played significant roles in American liberation but the colonies had to pay a huge price for it.

4. Its Too Late for Apology

The song was written by a republic front man, Ryan Tedder, and also included several other interpretations (remixes). His song was among the known hit songs of the season, both local and international. The song portrays the British as all-time tormentors, who had no reason to apologize for the evils they had done to Americans in the aftermath of Indian and French wars. However, the British also felt let down by their government, as they paid heavy taxes in order to sustain their colonies.

The Road to Civil War

1. Slavery

Slavery began in the American continent when the first African slaves were taken to North American colony in Virginia, around 1619. The objective of this transfer of population was to assist in production of crops, such as tobacco. It continued until the 18th century, when mechanization began to take shape. The discovery of the cotton gin in the 18th century reduced the importance of slavery. In both 17th and 18th centuries, the slaves worked mainly on rice, tobacco, and indigo plantations along the southern coasts. After the constitution was passed, the slaves were recognized as three fifth of a person, in terms of taxation. In the 18th century, slave life was deplorable because slaves were just recognized by their masters, as part of their property, and the masters could do anything to them. It happened until the human rights movements in the 18th century.

Towards the mid-19th century, there was a growing debate on the abolition of slave trade and the idea continued to expand westwards. The debate tore the nation apart, causing the American Civil War of 1861-1865. The results for this civil unrest resulted to liberation of 4 million slaves, but the legacy of slavery continued to haunt the American history. Despite the recognition of slave rights, other factors, such as taxation were instilled to them, which only worsened their way of life significantly.

2. Abolitionist Movement

The movement was an effort to bring slavery, slave trade and discrimination to an end. It was often referred to antislavery movement, and it was the foundation behind black resistance to slavery. The abolitionism in the North was led by the Quakers, with a belief that the act of buying and selling human as slaves was barbaric, as well as the institution of slavery as a whole. In the northern part of America, the abolitionists were divided into two factions. One was the radical abolitionist movement that emerged from western New York, which declared the trade illegal and urged all northerners to help in liberating the slaves in the South. However, the liberty group rejected the provocative tactics and perceived the best way to end slavery, which was through a congress jurisdiction. The slave owners disliked the northern abolitionists radical tactics to end slave trade, and had a great intention to commit a possible genocide against them.

3. Effects of American-Mexican War to American Civilization

The Mexican American War had its benefits and drawbacks to the history of American civilization. One of the most admirable legacies was the inception of a military laboratory, which was a rite of passage to men, who commanded the both sides in the Civil War. Most junior officers in the Mexican war became generals for the union and the confederacy. For instance, Robert Lee and US Grant were captain and lieutenant respectively in the Mexican training ground. The small number of the army enabled them to know each other by person. As the western territories joined US Grant, most of the army men chose not to have slavery, an issue that raised the difference in power balance. The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo maintained that all Mexicans, who were in the western territories, acquired complete citizenship of the United States. The Compromise of 1850 was a crisis that merely delayed an inevitable conflict between the South and the North. The Compromise allowed California to join as a free state, but the rest of the territories remained conquered by Mexico in limbo. The status of other states was to be decided upon their application for statehood.

4. Slavery and Civil War

The American Civil War started as a meant to avoid the literal segregation of the North and the South. However, it soon turned to a fight to do away with the institution of slavery. Although the confederacy laws prohibited any form of integration between the natives and the slaves, most of the slaves were enlisted in the army. They served as guards, manservants, cooks and soldiers. Before the civil war, the economic interest of the Americans diverted. The cause of the civil war was probably a result of the economic empowerment of slaves, after the invention of mechanized equipment - both in the industry and plantations.

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