Category: History

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Evolution of Ethno-Nationalism and Unification Trends in Western Europe

For the last 40 years, the western states have ended all the conflicts in their land, although most of the states are still powerful and sovereign. The borders of these states drawn a long time ago by centuries of wars between the countries have remained undisputable, as their economies have become more prosperous, making this country more enviable by most of the underdeveloped countries for immigration. However, European countries from time to time are troubled by the remnants of the war, as they are a constant reminder of the fragility of their nation. Ethno-nationalism is the process of unifying all the communities considered less powerful, wishing for them some of the international recognition. The roots of Ethno-nationalism are fed by the inspiration of the elite and majority states that quest for political mobilization. However, Ethno-nationalism can prosper the cultural, economic, and political developments in these states.

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The fabrication of the ethnic identities commonly referred to as the cultural register is one of the roots of Ethno-nationalism. The entire process of building an identity of the nation consists in the fact that all the nations decide on the patrimony of the nation. In the early 19th century, each of the countries in Europe began making inventories of their past to underscore the peculiarity of their own history. There has been no reform to conduct the unification process of these nations, rather there has been a process of competition. The initial stage of Ethnonationalism in European countries corresponds to the time when the nations were fabricated around the 19th century. This is the period where the favors used the cultural criteria of the racialist approach to show off their ethnic differences. The contradictory economic variables are among the roots of Ethnonationalism. This is because Ethno-nationalism claims have been formulated in an economic language for a long time, especially in the second stage during the interpretation of the development of regionalism.

Unification Trends in Western Europe and then the rest of the Continent

The French Revolution in 1789-1799 was the period marked by social and political changes and upheaval in Europe and France. During this period, the restructuring of the French government occurred from absolute monarchy to feudal privileges under radical changes, forming the basis of the enlightened principles of citizenship, republic, and the inalienable existence of the rights. The congress of Vienna was conducted between the ambassadors from the main powers in Europe chaired by the Austrian diplomacy Wenzel, held in Austria from September 1814 to June 1815. The objectives of the congress were to look for the best mechanisms to settle the issues through the restructuring of the political map of the nation. This was after the defeat of Napoleonic France, which caused the changes after the formal dissolution of the Roman Empire eight years before. The discussions on the best ways of unifying the nations continued despite the return of the ex-emperor Napoleon I and the consequent resumption of power over France in 1815.

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The German Confederation was the association of 39 Central European states developed from the Congress of Vienna in 1815, to serve as the successor of the 240 state Holy Roman Empire to the German nations, abolished in 1806. The 1848 revolutions in Paris were set off by the uprising of several German states. This confederation led to the banning of public meetings, as well as petitions. After the strong struggles to unify the countries, the Germans were forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, which expected high demands from Germany in the effort to humiliate the Germans in their continuation for breaking the post-war diplomacy, which included the negotiations between the victors and the vanquished. In summer 1989, there were rapid transformations in the East of Germany, which lead to German reunification. There were a growing number of East German as well as West German immigrants, through Hungary, and through the borders that separated both East and West Germany. However, the immigration generated political changes, as well as mass demonstrations, which involved several people in all the cities. In the occurrence of these events, the German authorities at the eastern part eased the border restrictions, allowing the German citizens from the East to travel freely to the West. This led to the acceleration of the reforms in the East, which ended the German reunification in 1990. Also, under the terms set, Berlin became the capital city of German again, reuniting both East and West Germany. From the Second World War, Germany has sustained intermittent turmoil arising from the various groups. For instance, in the 1970s, there were terrorist organizations engaged in several strings of assassinations, which led to the kidnapping of major political and business figures. This resulted in the religious ban on Muslims in German territory.

The Kosovo War and the Rise and Fall of the Westphalian World Order

The Kosovo war was the last European conflict that lasted from February 1998 to June 1999. The troubled history of the German region is deep-rooted in the antagonism between different ethnic groups within the region, laying claim of ownership of the region. Kosovo is the disputed borderline between Serbia and Albania, whereby 90 percent of the inhabitants of the region are Kosovo Albanians. The forces of the Republic of Yugoslavia, the Kosovo rebel group, and NATO fought the war. The Kosovo war ended with the formation of the Kumanovo Treaty, whereby the Yugoslavian forces agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo. This led to the paved way for international intervention.

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The rise and decline of the Westphalian world order took place from 1648 to 2000. Pre-Westphalian Europe was composed of the mixture of the declining empires, the retreating feudal lords, and the emergence of the class of traders and the capitalistic entrepreneurs. During this period, the church remained an influential instrument of European governance. The first phase of the Westphalian order lasted from 1648 to 1815. It was characterized by the emergence of the mercantilism and political-economic system. The second phase of the Westphalian world order was the period from 1815 to 1915. This period was characterized by the balance of power systems put in place through the means of peace settlement at the Congress of Vienna. The third phase was characterized by war and military confrontations between the countries. After the end of the war to 2002, the Westphalian order is characterized by the existence of the unification treaties in the German countries and the formation of the European Union.

The History of the European Union

The European Union was created with the Maastricht Treaty in 1993. It is the unification of 27 member states. This treaty is the political and economic union between the European countries, which share their policies concerning together their economics, societies, and securities. The aftermath of the Second World War led to the formation of several initiatives for European cooperation, based on military, political, and economic fronts. However, the major challenge facing the reconstruction of the European Union was to rebuild Europe and to ensure the peaceful recovery of Germany as an independent country. France proposed the establishment of the European coal and steel community through the treaty of Paris in 1951, while the 1957 Treaties of Rome established the European Economic Community (EEC). The basic structure of the institution consisted of the commissions that are entrusted with the roles of overseeing the execution of the policies set. Since the 1950s, European integration has consisted of the gradual process of the incorporation of new policies agreed by the European parliament that provides further political directions for the European Union activities. With time, the changes of the treaties provided clearest indications of further integrative processes marked by the ruling of the European Council. The political upheavals fought by European history describe the European politics of the European Union in the current society. The major issue facing the integrative step is the adoption of the changes in policies meaning the changes of powers of a variety of the institutions and the possibilities of safeguarding the interests represented by the union.

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European history has evolved for an extended period. During this period, there have been major changes integrated into different treaties signed within this era to the unification process through the formation of the European Union. The political upheavals fought by European history describe the European politics of the European Union in the current society. The major issue facing the integrative step is the adoption of the changes in policies meaning the changes of powers of a variety of the institutions and the possibilities of safeguarding the interests represented by the union.

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