There can be no doubt in the assumption that National Review contains many articles, concerning education and immigration, which can be connected to political issues. For the last twenty years, the authors have paid special attention to educational and immigration issues due to the reason that they belong to the scope of the most influential factors affecting the future of the United States. National Review is one of the most popular magazines. Its contributors usually focus on the consequences of immigration taking into account its impact on education. The purpose of this research paper is to explore the magazine’s attitudes and speculations over the topics of education, immigration, and their links altogether. Therefore, the views of the National Review on the issues of immigration have remained firm and unchanged, as its contributors still believe that the links between immigration and education are united by the fact that the former extends its rather huge influence on the latter. Presumably, most of the contributors to the National Review illustrate the negative effects immigration has on education and on the overall welfare of the United States.
National Review’s Scope of Education and Immigration
To find out the attitude of the National Review to the issues of education and immigration it is reasonable to separate these notions firstly. Education in the United States is still an ambiguous matter due to the level of difference concerning the quality of primary and higher education. Although the quality has improved for the last decade, public schools still lag further behind other countries such as Finland (Eden, 2014) because they have become marketing targets. In contrast to the issues addressed a decade ago, nowadays National Review concentrates on the debates on higher education, which are based on the disagreements regarding the content and methods of teaching, and their distribution (Lawler, 2015). The recent interesting issue concerning education has emerged due to the reason that the conservatives have decided to invite a speaker, Christina Hoff, whose views on sexual assaults are strikingly different from those of students’. Thus, it is necessary to admit that the underlying magazine’s position towards the matter of education is highly critical. This criticism achieves the level that condemns the government’s actions in a politically correct way.
The contributors also point out the negative aspects of American education. In college, as well as at school, there is no systematic training and one may become a witness of a fragmentary and sometimes chaotic educational process. In order to successfully graduate from college, the student must pass a certain number of required courses as a general education plan for a specific specialty, which lacks sequence. National Review admits that the American education system is more associated with the exhortation (or ‘coaching’) first to the tests, and then – to a specific profession or scientific discipline. Therefore, National Review comes to a realization that nowadays American education lacks an initiative as a state in which education evolves consciously. At American schools – both secondary and higher education – a student acts as an agent to be addressed with pragmatically oriented action learning. The essence of this training lies in instilling important skills for professional work. Although in this sense the American education system is very productive and efficient, it has little in common with the purpose of education.
As to immigration, it was a pressing issue a decade ago and continues to be so nowadays. The structure of the immigration flows began to change in the 19th century. Revolution, the formation of independent states in Latin America, getting them into the sphere of the economic and political influence of the U.S., the development of transport and communications, political changes in many parts of the world – all these factors have led to an intensification of immigration. National Review and its contributors have always drawn the potential readers’ attention to the problems of immigration, connecting them to the welfare of Native Americans as well as to the economy of the United States. Although the attitude of this magazine to immigration is also critical, it acquires quite a different status, which is far more connected to the political issues. National Review demonstrates that immigration influences the United States badly. A vivid example of this can be shown when it comes to the discussion of the emerging complications concerning the continued Mideast immigration that influences the country’s development in three ways. The matter is that it has a tendency to change the U. S. policies and give the opportunity to the Islamic extremists to operate within the United States (Camarota, 2002b). In general, the magazine promotes an idea that political forces should solve the matter of immigration.
The contributors to the National Review also speculate upon Obama’s conception of immigration issues. They generally put emphasis on both liberal and rather rigid restrictive elements. The President, at the beginning of his stay in the White House, has significantly increased spending on border protection, including the construction of 600 miles of border fences, the purchase of drones and doubling the number of Border Service troops on the border with Mexico. However, the magazine admits that the problem of immigration still exists and influences many aspects of American life. Despite the many positive aspects of immigration, it causes controversy in American society. On the one hand, it is clear that immigration plays a very important role as a factor of population growth, helping the United States to maintain the position of one of the most populated countries in the world, and as a stimulant to economic activity. On the other hand, the assessment of the economic impact of immigration is marked with a certain point of ambiguity.
The Consequences of Immigration: Educational Perspective
In addition, there can be no doubt in the assumption that immigration is one of the most widely discussed problems in the National Review, as the magazine attaches the highest importance to its consequential nature, linking it to education. Illegal immigration is the object of National Review’s articles. The magazine points out that the relative ineffectiveness of measures aimed at restricting immigration is caused by a number of factors: the actual transparency of borders, the relative weakness of immigration policies and other law enforcement agencies, the limited rigid constitutional framework, high-income American population and political guarantees provided by the U. S. law. National Review points out that immigration poses a serious strain on the labor market, financial, educational, health and social services systems of the United States and relates it to the political issues. The contributors to the magazine believe that the main goal of immigration reform should be the elimination of a massive underground economy operating cheap labor and lower wages.
Bearing in mind the previous points it is reasonable to enlarge upon the tangible links, which exist between immigration and education and are promoted by National Review’s contributors. Generally, the influence of immigration on education is negative to the extent that it changes the nature of American education. These drastic changes manifest themselves in the low educational level of immigrants, which further influences the level of their children. Thom (1997) collects data and determines that “California has the largest number of children in the nation-one of every four-living with parents who dropped out of high school” (p. 38). Camarota (2001) supports this point, attaching it to the Mexican immigration and public schools:
The impact on public schools is even more significant. In the last 20 years, the school-age population has grown by roughly 8 million. Because of language barriers, the children of immigrants often cost significantly more to educate than those of natives. (p. 22)
The above-mentioned contributor to the National Review also points out that Mideast immigration exerts negative effects on education and the United States in general. Muslim immigrants are marked with high educational levels, which makes it easier for them to assimilate. Magazine contributors believe that the government should be sensible in their decisions concerning this particular immigration (Camarota, 2002b). According to National Review, assimilation is devastating (Fonte, 2014). A high number of immigrants affect the development of bilingual education, which, in turn, presupposes the hostility of immigrants towards the American nation. In this regard, acquired linguistic factors are of exceeding importance. In fact, the majority of immigrants from Latin America retain their linguistic identity and ethnic-territorial form clusters. It is not a coincidence that in many border states legislative proposals were advanced, which contained demands to tighten the immigration regime and officially declare English the official language. Nevertheless, the contributors to the magazine believe that given the effectiveness of the system of separation of powers in the United States, comprehensive immigration reform still requires the passage through the Congress administration and the lack of objection by the judicial authorities regarding their compliance with the provisions of the Constitution of the United States (Salam, 2015). Thus, despite the victory of Obama in the November 6 elections in 2012, the conduct of comprehensive reform in this area is still questionable.
Still, there are conflicting views concerning the positive impact of the immigrant students on the well-being of the country promoted by some of the contributors to the National Review. The extensive training of foreign students in the U. S. colleges and universities helps the Americans choose the best shots for the country and stimulate the formation of pro-American groups that can perform the role of carriers of a new political culture and ideology of those who subsequently return to their home countries. The influx of highly skilled professionals eases the burden on the American educational system. National Review concurs with the last aspect of immigration, which is particularly important because it provides an extension of the American political, economic and cultural influence in the countries of emigration. Starting from the post-war period, it took several waves of intellectual migration: first from Western Europe and Japan, and then – South Korea, Taiwan and other countries in Asia and Latin America, in the future – from China, Eastern Europe, etc.
However, one of the contributors, Borjas (2002) is anxious about the future of immigrant students in the United States. The author believes that the authorities should monitor immigrant students so as not to give them the opportunity to enforce illegal immigration and states: “But once a student enters the U.S., there is practically no monitoring of him: The schools do not even have to report whether the student actually enrolled” (p. 39). Although the Bush administration has tried to make a difference, the approach was quite ineffective. It is necessary to point out that most of the National Review’s articles concerning immigration and its influence on the country are marked with a negative attitude. Specifically, such authors as Abraham (1996), Brimelow (1996), Krikorian (2002) reveal their negative attitude towards the issues of immigration. Respectively, their articles reflect strong positions, which condemn the level of immigration. While Brimelow (1996), considering the education of foreign students, states that immigration is “America’s assisted suicide” (p. 65) and Abraham believes immigration to be a dystopia, Krikorian (2002) demonstrates that this procedure reminds him of “welcoming the enemy” (p. 48). Therefore, the magazine’s negative attitudes toward the issues of different kinds of immigration prevail.
To sum up the foregoing, National Review is a magazine, whose contributors attach the highest importance to the immigration influence. Their attitude is critical to both the American education and immigration policies. Interestingly, the articles of the National Review can serve as a background for defining immigration in the United States and determining the status of education. While National Review’s attitude to immigration is negative and convincing, the issue of education is treated with the emphasis on the existing problems that predominate.