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One of my favorite subjects is psychology. I like it because it is educative and it affects me as an individual. The following are some of the most important psychological concepts which have motivated me to love this subject.
Structural Model Theory
This theory was propounded by Sigmund Freud. It explains the role of childhood experience and the unconscious mind in determining human behavior. He claims that there is an ID that works in conjunction with ego and superego. Whereas ID is an instinctive component, the superego is responsible for the moralization of the situation.
In case of a conflict between them, the ego mediates by acting as an arbiter. This restores harmony in the behavior of the person. However, the tension continues, the body responds by developing appropriate defense mechanism measures, to have full control over it.
Love is a psychological concept that refers to a feeling of strong affection and personal attachment to an individual or any other person around. Love leads to attraction and can enable a person to feel free to interact with others. In psychology, it is regarded as a virtue, which shows human benevolence and kindness towards others.
As an emotional feeling, love can lead to acceptance and admiration of another person. When people love somebody, they feel proud and fulfilled. Loving others can enable a person to feel free to associate with them. However, it is important to acknowledge that it can take different forms. There can be parental, filial, and erotic love. Each of these is directed to a different personality, depending on the societal codes of ethics.
James Lange Theory of motivation
Motivation is a very important concept in psychology. It simply means any internal or external stimulus, which influences a person to continue doing an action. This implies that the drive can come both from within the person performing an action or any other. According to this theory, the experiences of a specific emotion are a product of psychological arousal.
In other words, individuals' emotional reactions are instigated by the experiences from the brain and nervous system. Any change in the environment can result in an emotional experience. As a consequence, individuals will demonstrate different emotional behaviors in the response to the stimuli (Freitas-Magalhaes, 2007).
Aggression is a behavior that can lead to psychological or physical harm to an individual or any other person to whom it is directed. It can be expressed verbally, physically, or mentally. An aggressive person has the behavior which leads to self-assertion. Such a condition is attributed to a desire to respond to hostility, frustrations, or innate drives.
Aggression is often linked to misbehaviors because it often compels individuals to engage in actions that cause intentional discomfort. However, it is at times useless since it does not add any value to life. It is justified to express one's assertion in a positive manner that can be beneficial to everyone.
In psychology, punishment refers to any response that minimizes the likelihood of the subsequent occurrence of a behavior. It is an operant conditioning process that provokes an immediate response to a given stimulus. The punishment can either be positive or negative. Whereas a positive punishment involves the addition of the stimulus, negative punishment is the removal of a stimulus in response to a person's conduct.
Although punishment is aimed at establishing a change in the behavior, it is the same behavior that is punished. The person acting is not punished. Therefore, as reinforcement, punishment can make a person change his behavior and conform to the required standard.
According to Jean Piaget, the cognitive development of human beings takes place progressively. It starts from a primitive stage and advances with chronological age. According to Piaget's theory of Cognitive Development, learned experiences have a distinct contribution to make in the mental development of an individual.
Assimilation is developed by infants when they use their schemata to construct new knowledge about the already existing ones. Meaning, they develop the ability to link a newly introduced set of knowledge to the ones they already know. As a result, they use their mental structures to interpret and associate them with their immediate environment.
Social Comparison Theory
This theory was developed by Leon Festinger to explain the influence of society on individuals. Leon explains that this theory can give a comprehensive explanation of how people evaluate their own abilities and opinions in comparison to others. Everyone needs to conform to a certain standard set by society. However, this can only be achieved by attaining self-consciousness and environmental awareness.
It recognizes the contribution of togetherness in the satisfaction of an individual. Since society brings people together, they get a chance to judge their potentials and compare them to others. This may be linked to identity and competition because everyone can only compare their abilities to those whom they admire or are perceived to be more successful as compared to them. Self-evaluation can enable a person to notice his weaknesses and make the necessary adjustments to meet a certain standard.
Self-esteem is a personality concept that entails an evaluation of personal worth. Carrying out of personal judgment is the only way through which an individual can emotionally express his beliefs to ascertain the level of satisfaction accomplished. If one understands the positive and negative attitudes towards himself, one can be in the position of determining one's level of life satisfaction.
The interpretation of self-worthiness can enable a person to be proud or shameful. However, this depends on the level of achievement one attains in comparison to the set standards. If it is appealing, a person becomes proud of himself. Otherwise, he feels desperate and guilty of his underachievement. However, it is good for each person to have personal esteem.
This is a concept of categorization theory, which states some people tend to develop a personal stigma. In this case, a person compares himself with others. However, he ends up underestimating his performance because it is less than that of others. In the long run, he develops a negative attitude towards his performance because he feels that it is below standard.
Self-stigmatization leads to depersonalization. Meaning, a person loses confidence in his abilities because he is convinced that he can no compete with others. This is so detrimental since it can psychologically affect a person. It is unhealthy for a person to conclude that he cannot do anything in life.
Social Identity Theory
This theory was propounded by John Turner and Henry Tafel. It states that the behavior of a person can be greatly influenced by the presence of others in society. Since people live together, there is a need for conformity and identity to a specific clique. In such a situation, people tend to be influenced to adopt the traits that they admire in others.
This behavior can be closely linked with the identity syndrome and the desire of people to form a clique to be identified with. If this happens, they practice the behaviors which are accepted by others as representative of their group.