Summary of Findings of the Coursework
The transfer of nanocrystals into an aqueous solution was effective because aggregates of visible precipitates were not observed in the solution (Liong et al., 2008). The findings show that synthesis of nanocrystals underwent thermal decomposition of iron-oleate complexes. The process took place in the solution of octadecene solvent which was applicable so as to utilize inexpensive reagents and yield large quantities of materials. The method that has been adapted is quite simple in enabling the hydrophobic tail of CTAB surfactants to mix amicably with oleate ligand on the surface of the crystals. Surface attachments that embrace hydrophilic groups were also effective in ensuring that the stability of nanoparticles dispersion increases.
Additionally, there was a further modification that took place in mesoporous silicate to ensure the pores were filled with chemotherapeutic drug molecules. The morphology of iron oxide was a function of the solution’s temperature. The temperature that falls below 650C makes silica formation process slow and subsequently yields large sized materials comprising mesoporous silica particles. In fact, this explains why it was imperative to form nanoparticles at a higher temperature and ensure vigorous stirring by using a dilute precursor solution that synthesizes a mesostructured particle (Liong et al., 2008). Similarly, at higher temperatures exceeding 800 0C, the mesoporous silica formed clumps of materials whose size was considerably large. Under the transmission of an electron microscope, the findings stipulate that the images depict dark iron oxide nanocrystals and two dimensions of hexagonal mesoporous silica structure.
What was done to control the size of the crystals is varying the temperature of the applicable solution. The temperature ranging between 6500C -8000C led to the formation of crystals whose diameter would vary between 100-200nm (Liong et al., 2008). Similarly, controlling the crystal’s size would also undermine the speed of the formation process. In addition, the method pertaining to aqueous transfer of hydrophobic nanocrystals and the synthesis of mesoporous silica will be useful when applied to other materials. For instance, the adopted procedure might be also replaced with gold and silver nanocrystals as long as they are deposited at the centre of mesoporous silica particles.
What characterizes the materials is the noble metallic nanocrystals that would appear dark and dense. Moreover, they also have the ability to store water insoluble-drugs without having to mix them with aqueous solutions. The storage ability is the result of the inherent hydrophobic nature of molecules (Liong et al., 2008). Another characterization is cellular uptake as the particles can enter cells within a time span of thirty minutes without causing an observable toxicity. However, the clusters are not located on the cell membranes but within the cells. MR imaging as a characteristic of the materials becomes useful for determining whether they may be used as contrast agents in solutions and inside cells. The materials were at the centre of NPs in the TEM images. The property of the function will be of interest because Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest in terms of bridging the gap between molecular structures, atomic structures, and bulk materials.
Properties and Dimensions of Nano-Objects
Nano objects were applicable because they can be grown by various methods through a process of chemical synthesis. The dimension of Nano objects may vary between one, two or three when placed on a Nano scale. The size of a Nano object will range from approximately 1 nm to 100nm. Nanoparticles tend to exhibit some special properties that are relative to bulk material and which distinguish them from bulk properties (Liong et al., 2008). For instance, while bending a bulk copper wire, the movement will be accompanied by the movement of clusters at about 50nm scale. Similarly, Nanoparticles will be made up of metals, semi-conductors, and oxides. It will also be imperative to acknowledge that interaction between the solvent and the surface of nanoparticles might overcome the density disparities. The material will then end up floating or sinking in the solvent. However, the visual materials of these properties are unexpected because the materials are small enough to confine their electrons and produce a quantum effect. It is also likely that the surface effects of nanoparticles will have a tendency to reduce the melting temperature of the incipient (Liong et al., 2008).
Implications and Impact of this Work for Science and Technology
The implications of this work for science and technology will be useful in the realm of medicine, specifically in diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other viral infections. The materials can also be applied to the development of carbon Nanotubes as well as the addition of antibodies to aid in the formation of bacteria sensors (Kohler et al., 2006). In addition, the materials may use quantum dots or synthetic chromophores in the selection of molecules such as proteins for the sole purpose of intracellular imaging. The applications developed for nanoparticles will also comprise the delivery of chemotherapy drugs towards cancer tumours in a direct manner and aid in resetting immune system to prevent autoimmune diseases. Targeted drug delivery will be efficient in treating cancer while at the same time negating toxicities of the surrounding normal tissues (Lu, Liong, Zink, & Tamanoi, 2007).
Other applications in the realm of medicine include prosthetics biological nanomachines and implants. The obstacles that will have to be overcome before this material can be used appear with a specialized approach to testing and monitoring the effects of these materials and the implications they will pose to human health. The materials may have detrimental health concerns with an increased rate of absorption being the main problem associated with synthesized nanoparticles. Another obstacle that can be overcome is devising a nanoparticle that will have the capability of targeting precise diseased cells that encompass therapeutic agents released from the cells (Jun et al., 2005).