This principle states that exercise training effect is specific to those muscles involved in an activity that is if you perform leg curls, the upper arms are not expected to benefit. This principle also applies adaptations in the muscle, e.g., strength training which results in the increase, in muscle strengths, but does not greatly improve the endurance of the muscle.
This is the period between the exercise and training sessions. During this period, the body adapts to the exercise stress by increasing endurance or becoming stronger. Failure to get enough rest between sessions results to overstraining which leads to chronic fatigue or injuries. Its symptoms are a sore and stiff muscle whose cure is to increase duration of rest between workouts or reduce the intensity of workouts.
Reversibility of training effects
This is the loss of fitness due to inactivity. It explains how quickly fitness is lost after a person stops training, e.g., after the person stops performing endurance exercise, he/she loses his/her muscular endurance relatively fast.
Exercise program design
A dose that effectively promotes physical fitness is the exercise prescription. It should be tailored to meet the needs of an individual, and include fitness goals, mode of exercise, a warm-up, primary conditioning period, and a cool down.
Its important to set goals, either short-term or long-term, as they motivate you to begin your exercise program, improve your self-esteem, and provide an incentive needed to make a lifetime commitment to regular exercise. In order to achieve the fitness goals, it is important to be realistic, establish short-term goals first, then set long-term goals that are realistic, establish lifetime maintenance goals, and put these goals in writing.
Chapter Three Introduction
In this chapter, accessibility of the level of health related component and design of a scientifically based program on how to achieve good health and fitness goals is discussed.
Cardiorespiratory Endurance is the ability to perform aerobic exercises e.g. swimming, jogging and cycling for a longer period of time. This process is effective in the weight loss and reducing the risk of contracting cardiovascular diseases. This is important component of the health related physical fitness, which is measured in VO2 max, or maximum aerobic capacity described as the maximum amount of oxygen the body takes in during exercise. Cardiorespiratory system is made up of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the whole body and remove waste products from the body tissues.
The heart is a pump that contracts to generate pressure which moves blood through blood vessels. It has two parts, the right side which pumps deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary circuit, and left side, that pumps oxygenated blood to blood tissues through the systematic circuit. On the other hand, we have arteries which transport oxygenated blood to the body from the heart, pulmonary vein that carries blood from lungs to the heart and veins which carry deoxygenated blood from body tissues to the heart. Blood is pumped by heart to the aorta, then to the arterioles, which further branch it to capillaries through which oxygen and nutrients easily pass. Heart rate, also known as pulse, is the numbers of times per minute the heart beats. We take our heart rate from the radial artery and carotid artery. In every heartbeat, there is an amount of blood pumped called stroke volume, a product of cardiac output, which is the amount of blood pumped per minute.
Energy for Exercise
Energy is the fuel needed to make the muscles move for activity. Energy is gotten from the breakdown of foods. Energy from food is used to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the body cells, energy is stored in small amounts in muscles. ATP is broken down to release energy used by the muscles which contract to enhance movement. The body uses two systems, the anaerobic, which requires no oxygen, and aerobic, which requires oxygen. Aerobic is the primary system for developing cardiorespiratory endurance, which is required to get oxygen into the muscles. Anaerobic production of ATP occurs during glycolysis which is a process that breaks down carbohydrates in cells. Carbohydrates are supplied to the muscles from glucose and glycogen. Anaerobic pathway provides ATP at the beginning of a short-term exercise and high intensity exercise (30-60 seconds).
After a minute of high intensity exercise, production of ATP anaerobically decreases, and aerobic production of ATP starts to increase. This process needs oxygen for chemical reactions to make ATP. While anaerobic system uses carbohydrates as its source, aerobic system uses carbohydrates and proteins to produce ATP.
Cardiorespiratory Systems and Exercise
There are several responses and adaptations in a cardiorespiratory system. Responses are changes that occur during and immediately after an exercise, e.g., increased heart rate and heavy breathing after walking uphill. Adaptations are changes realized when we stick with one exercise program, e.g., an ability to walk uphill without facing challenges after a few weeks.
Responses to exercise included an increased pulse rate, high level of stroke volume, cardiac output, and fast rate of breathing. Adaptations to aerobic exercise include decreased resting heart rate, increased stoke volume, and improved body composition.
Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Cardiorespiratory fitness lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and increases longevity, reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, lowers blood pressure and increases bone density in the weight-bearing bones. Furthermore, it leads to physical health benefits such as high self-esteem and improved sleep quality. In addition, there is more energy for work and play for those who exercise.
Evaluation of Cardiorespiratory Endurance
Cardiorespiratory Fitness is accessed in various ways: the 1.5-mile run test, which is based on the idea that people with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness can run 1.5 miles faster than those with a lower level of cardiorespiratory fitness; the 1 mile walk test, which is also based on a similar idea as that of the 1.5-mile test. Cycle ergometer test, which is a cycle test substantial based on the principle that individuals with high cardiorespiratory fitness levels have lower exercise heart rate at standard workload than less fit individuals and step test which is performed by individuals of all fitness levels.
Endurance training is a type of exercise aimed at improving cardiorespiratory endurance. We use various techniques, such as cross training, which is the use of multiple modes of training, e.g., where you do aerobic class in one day, and swim in another day. This technique might reduce risk and occurrence of overuse injuries. Another technique is interval training, which involves repeated sessions or intervals of relatively intense exercise with lower periods to rest. It is mainly used by athletes and people exercising to improve their fitness. Interval training rapidly increases their exercise intervals in the improvement stage.
How to get motivated to become active
People, who begin an exercise program, quit their training within six months, due to lack of time to exercise, since they have busy schedule. In order to be motivated to exercise, a person should keep a record of his/her training, which helps to realize small changes that occur, so as to keep the program enjoyable, exercise with a partner who makes the work out interesting, and maintain the commitment to regular exercise routine. Finally, there will be discomfort and soreness after the first several exercise sessions, which is normal and disappears as the level of fitness improves. Maintaining healthy level of cardiorespiratory fitness requires time and effort, and the reward is well worth the labor.