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The authors of this journal are Christopher, J, Fives, Grace Kong, Ryan Fuller, and Raymond DiGiusepp. These four people are responsible for this periodical and have never published the same type of work anywhere in the specified field.
The aim of the study has been defined clearly. The study discussed anger, hostility/aggression, and irrational beliefs. The entire features of the study were clearly displayed in the first paragraph of the abstract, well mentioned, explained, and defined for the reader. He will have a rough idea about the content of the periodical, and what articles he will encounter in the journal. The aims are well justified with the necessary references, well-cited to boost the statement and support it. The second paragraph of the introduction, states, Anger is an affective state, whereas aggression is viewed as any behavior intended to harm (Kassinove and Sukhodolsky 1995). This phrase is properly cited to prove the argument and base it upon a certain book, journal, or article, which was written by the authors indicated, and also the precise year. Therefore, it is possible to consider that the journal is properly referenced, and it is well presented according to the opening background. Also, the background literature provides clear rationale links to the development of the present study. The research methods, which are chosen, highly favor the study, the questions which are generated are directed to the participants who are the victims in this work. The methods which are used to conclude are highly accurate, easy, but it may take time because they are systematic. The participants have to complete a demographic questionnaire. The demographic questionnaire is a list of questions that provide information containing their age, grade level, and even ethnicity. The other method is the aggression questionnaire. The aggression questionnaire is a self-report measure of anger and aggression, and its main purpose is to assess the levels of anger and aggression on the participants. The other method is the peer-rated measure (PRM). PRM is intended to measure anger, hostility, and aggression in a person. A participant was given10 statements about anger, hostility, and aggression. These statements aim to decide whether it is applied to the participating peers. The ethical issues that have been generally rising in the journal have been adequately identified and addressed properly.
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There were one hundred and thirty-five participants; they were all from four grade levels, i.e. grades nine through twelve, and all of them were at the critical stage of adolescents. These participants were from a department of a certain high school, in Long Island in New York. The sample that was found had a mean age of 15.04 (SD = 79), and the range was from 14 to 17. 77 of the participants were female, and the rest were male. The authors have neither mentioned nor explained, why the particular site was chosen. The data collection is clear to the reader as well as the process, which was used to collect the data. Indeed, the data collections address the original questions in the field of exploration. The data analysis was undertaken using different statistics, which were placed in tables and scales to summarise the findings, hence conclude the study. The data analysis process was thorough in that means, and all standard deviations were compared to other schools for certainty. Moreover, it was not similar to the themes that emerged during the experiment exercise but were as a result of the questioners alone. The authors have considerably addressed the qualities of trustworthiness as well as transferability. Sufficient data, including a lot of responses, have been presented in support of the findings. The authors contextualize their findings openly in the journal for the reader to understand the aim of the research. The relationship between the researcher and the people who were being researched was general and did not indicate any close blood relations between them. It is proved by the fact that around 200 consent letters and forms were sent to every parent of the participants who were willing to join that activity. That action confirms that the researchers have no close relations with the participants.
It is considered that the researchers can justify why they are searching for certain types of correlation between variables. The researchers are seeking differences between variables and not relationships. The study is being used to review the validity of the measures which are subjected in the journal. The researchers assumed that the relationship between the two variables is meaningful. Before the researchers conducted an analysis, they examined the violation of the assumption of regression. Although they did not find multivariate using Mahalanobis distance. The peer-rated measure (PRM) of the students who had not yet received peer aggression, hostility, and anger had positively tilted with a percentage of 21.5.
The researchers have not used only one method of measurement. Apart from the questioners, they have used tables that consisted of variables used to suggest the answers to the study. Yes, some of the variable correlates are extremely high according to the tables that the researchers drew. Moreover, the researchers have correlated the variables together based on a solid theoretic background. Correlation is not interpreted as causality in the journal. It is any statistical relationship between different random variables or two sets of data. While reviewing the journal, one can see the term correlation is used widely to describe or compare one thing to another, i.e., The correlations among the subscales of the CASI were similar to the coefficients (Bernard and Cronan 1999).
Whereas the term causality means the relationship between two events, it can be also the cause and effects. Yes, the researchers have tried to do a correlation between different inappropriate variables, i.e. under the subtopic results, there were different examples where the researchers have used the term correlate several times to differentiate these variables and findings.
Some of the variables have not been measured in that kind of sensitivity because it was not necessary. Nevertheless, some of them have been sensitively measured, as the analysis of linear regression predicting aggression. This table is filled with exact values that define different rates of hostility and aggression. The coefficients, the semi partial correlations are adjusted to be different in all the predictors and predicting different kinds of aggression. Other variables that were measured to preciseness were the table that indicated the total sample mean and standard deviations. This methodology is considered the best when it concerns calculating the findings in research.