Nov 26, 2020 in Coursework
 

Anthropology

1. The impact of transition from food foraging to food productions had been great and caused even some new cultural adaptations of society. First and foremost, one should say that such a change was necessary for survival of human beings. The transition led to expansion of human race and rapid decrease of its population. Since humans were not forced to wander because of lack of food the new skills and technologies were created by people and passed from a father to the son. Moreover, such changes led to creation of new religious beliefs and more stable cultural traditions. It caused the appearance of new customs connected with harvest season, for example. Finally, the production of food also created the possibility of accumulation of goods, its trade and exchange. As result of it, people started to trade things and therefore the era of social inequity and economic differences began. In addition, whereas foraging caused the division of labor by gender feature, the food production and farming actually equaled both men and women in their ability to work and provide a family with food, since both of them could work in the field. While a few people were engaged in farming and provided the whole community with a source of food, the others, at the same time, had the possibility to specialize in construction of buildings, creating pottery, clothes etc. which also contributed to appearance of new technologies.

2. I do not agree with this statement because I consider that the decisions of certain firm are made collectively, that is by all working staff, whose abilities to rational activities are limited by their incapability of foreseeing all outcomes of made decisions as well as by their personal aspirations and social perspectives. So, this process of making decisions leads only to satisfactory results.

3. Polygyny is a form of marriage that involves one man and two or more wives. Polygyny is widely spread in the countries of Africa continent. The use of such marriage or the form of relations is justified by a number of reasons. First of all, the laws and customs of certain states foresee that a man has to marry the wife of his deceased brother. Having a lot of wives, prevent such a man from this duty. In addition, polygyny also satisfies the greedy desires of some people, since additional wife brings new source of income into a family. Moreover, there is a lot of marriageable girls in Africa in comparison with the quantity of men so that they are forced to share the same man. Some men in Islamic countries strive to have as many wives as possible since it testifies about their high social position and wealth. In addition, in the eyes of their enemies they look more strong and invincible. Finally, such form of marriage helps women to avoid additional sexual pressure of their husbands and opens them new perspectives in career since they are not obliged to bring up children (this can be done by other wives).

4. Descent groups are positioned as legal entities or institutions that recruit people by inherited status. These groups are formed on the basis of common origin and seem to be more concerned about welfare of membership. They perform a lot of functions like economic, cultural, social etc. Such descent groups have served as a basis for ancient tribes communities. The importance of descend groups for culture is explained by their role in maintaining the original culture and customs, skills and habits which are passed from generation to generation. So, as children grow up grandparents teach them customs and traditions of their society. Later those children are more capable to understand the way other members of society behave.

In my opinion, the most important and widespread descent groups are those, which carry out different economic or political functions. The first ones are very strong since they accumulate enormous wealth and have a great influence over different issues in the state. The descent groups which carry out political functions are important for stateless societies which do not have official institutions to ensure law enforcement. Therefore, the strong connections among members are helpful in creating a need control of disruptive behavior among population.

5. The rites of passage are ritual performances that remark the transition of a person from one status to another. These rituals help people to spiritually socialize and adapt to new conditions and challenges. Sometimes they mark a transition to a full membership of certain tribe or group. They differ by the criterion of life sphere in which they are performed; by the type of tribe they are used in etc. I can point out the following types of rites: religious (confirmation of religion in Buddhism, Reform Judaism, diving for the Cross in some Orthodox Christian churches, First confession, etc.), coming of age rites, military rites (Krypteia, Line-crossing ceremony, Wetting-down), academic and professional rites (White coat ceremony in medicine and pharmacy).

The rites of intensification are performed to influence natural powers. Usually they are carried out periodically, for example at harvest season, or occasionally when there is any disaster that causes the lack of food. People prepare different plants, solid, animals for the ceremony. The same prayer or number of words or sounds is said all the time. The ritual is performed in open public without cultural leaders. Among such rituals are Communion, saying the Lords Prayer, or reciting a creed in a Christian Church service or Halloween.

Unfortunately, I have not participated in any of rites yet.

6. In my opinion, anthropologists can use their knowledge in different spheres of life since the objects of anthropology are very diverse and depend upon the field of study. In main part, anthropologists examine human behavior, its reasons and outcomes. Such knowledge allows to foresee the changes and challenges of the future and to give recommendations as to improvement or correction of human habits and behavior which may contribute to the survival of human being. In addition, such field of study as biological anthropology investigates the effects of human attitude on maternal and fertile conditions and knowledge of this will help to avoid difficulties during pregnancy period and of course will influence the decision making processes of doctors who will examine a patient.

During this course I learned to be very attentive to details, to think analytically, to be accurate with record-keeping and to compare the data. So, I consider that it will be useful in any sphere I would be engaged in because of skills I possess.

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