Smoking is a practice that represents the taste of the smoke that people inhale as a result of burning tobacco and other chemical components. A tobacco smoke contains more than 30 toxic substances, nicotine, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, resinous substances, organic acids, and others. Many people all over the world smoke cigarettes. As a rule, the majority of those people suffers from different diseases and has a lower life expectancy. Smoking has a negative impact on human health. Because the inhaled smoke contains a large amount of harmful substances, smoking increases the risk of lung, mouth and respiratory tract cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and many mental diseases. Currently, the most common long-term consequences of smoking are the occurrence of COPD and the development of various tumors of the respiratory system.
The level of health problems in the world increases each year. Various cardiovascular diseases and cancer occupy the first place among diseases that cause death. One of the main reasons of their growth is the significant increase in the number of smokers, including sharply increased percentage of young people. The same as ionizing radiation at a given dose causes leukemia in humans, the certain dose of the carcinogenic substances generated by smoking leads to a variety of cancers, and especially to lung cancer. Tobacco and tobacco smoke contain over 3,000 chemicals, 60 of which are carcinogenic. It is able to damage the cell's genetic material and cause cancer growth. Considerable part of deaths from lung cancer and about 30% of all cancer deaths are caused by tobacco smoking. Lung cancer causes more deaths than any other kind of cancer. At the early stages, and sometimes even later, lung cancer may not manifest itself. However, when the signs are detected, the disease may be at the critical stage. Thus, unlike some other types of cancer, lung cancer is usually fatal. The risk to get lung cancer depends on how many cigarettes a person smokes per day, the amount of smoke he or she inhales, and the content of tar and nicotine in cigarettes. Smoking also causes cancer of the throat, mouth, tongue, mouth, larynx, bladder, kidney and pancreas. There is a connection between smoking and some other types of cancer, including the digestive tract, breast, and cervix cancer.
Immune system is the ability of the human organism to protect itself from environmental factors, as well as adapt to them. A properly functioning immune system protects people from diseases and helps to adjust to the conditions of the environment. Smoking and other bad habits can reduce the level of protection of the immune system and cause a breach of its functionality. They can transform immune system from the protector to the enemy of our health. Study of lymphocytes from peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes showed a clear inhibitory effect of smoking on cellular immunity of the body. It also showed that reduction in the number of cells that form platelets results in exposure to nicotine and water-soluble fraction of tobacco smoke. There was observed a breach of humoral immunity and decrease in the total number of cells in smokers. This process is very well seen in people who smoke a lot of cigarettes. The main negative effect of the smoking on the immune system is that it kills cells and antibodies that protect the body from the foreign invaders. It is difficult for immune system to work properly because when people smoke, the chemicals from cigarettes are carried by the blood, and it has a negative effect on the heart rate and blood pressure.
Smoking leads to such terrible lung diseases as cancer or tuberculosis. When cigarette smoke comes into the chest cavity, it goes into the bronchi. Hazardous substances that are contained in the smoke begin to affect the bronchial mucosa and cause cough that later becomes chronic and will accompany a smoker throughout his or her life. Tobacco smoke adversely affects the human respiratory system. It irritates the trachea, decreases the proper function of lungs, resulting in shortness of breath due to swelling and narrowing of the airways and damages the lung air sacs. Additionally, it increases the risk of lung infection. As a result of smoking, the mucous membrane is covered with light resin and lung clogs. As a result, it interferes with breathing and supply of oxygen. Smokers may suffer from fatigue, headaches and low brain activity. Cigarette smoke constantly causes the inflammation when it falls on the bronchial mucosa of the smoker and eventually it leads to appearance of the cancer cells in the bronchial mucosa.
In conclusion, it is important to say that smoking is a serious threat to the human health. It is one of the main causes of various kinds of cancer that very often lead to the death of smokers. It negatively affects all organs of the human body. Smoking weakens the immune system and people who smoke become more prone to infections. Smoking is a primary reason why people have breathing problems. It has a negative effect on the lungs and leads to lung cancer. As a result, people die from lung cancer more often than from any other type of cancer. Finally, all kind of cigarettes and tobacco are drugs that make people weaker and addictive to smoking.